Allergic Diseases of the Eye. These include allergic, idiopathic perennial nonallergic sometimes referred to as vasomotor rhinitis , infectious, medication related medicamentosa , hormonal, atrophic, polypoid or hyperplastic rhinitis, and rhinitis associated with systemic diseases Table 6—1. The inflammation is primarily a result of eosinophil immigration, activation, and persistence, due largely to factors released by the mast cell. In: Grammer L, Greenberger P, eds. Artemisia vulgaris Xanthium strumarium Southeast Region of United States Poa pratensis Phleum pretense Cynodon dactylon Dactyis glomerata Sorghum halepense Agrostis alba Lolium spp. Examples of such drug interactions are beta-blockers prescribed for various cardiovascular conditions that can exacerbate asthma and rhinitis; another is decongestant medications, such as pseudoephedrine, that can cause hypertension and tachycardia. Clin Allergy 1987; 17: 529— 536.
Mast cell mediators of allergy. Determination of IgE antibodies to the benzylpenicilloyl determinant: a comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of three radio allergo sorbent test methods. Like the original text, this Canadian edition includes a review of anatomy and physiology and treatment information for commonly occurring disease states. Reassurance that the nasal symptoms are the result of the medications or hormonal changes may be sufficient to discourage other unnecessary investigations if the medical treatments causing the rhinitis are essential. Allergy 2003; 58: 921— 928. Histamine can induce changes in the eye similar to those seen in other parts of the body.
Despite their efficacy in relief of allergic symptoms, systemic antihistamines may result in unwanted side effects, such as drowsiness and dry mouth. Bodily secretions that moisturize the skin and mucous membranes also play a role in preventing colonization of bacteria, by washing them off or destroying them. Patients may also suffer from somnolence, functional impairment, and increased occupational risks for accidents or injuries secondary to sedating oral antihistamine therapy, especially those sold over the counter. Prevention and Control Measures in the Management of Allergic Diseases. Dietary Food History Food intolerance and allergy symptoms associated with specific foods can be assessed in this section of the history.
There are an estimated 947 indigenous and 115 naturalized grass species. Ragweed attributes for approximately 75% of all cases of hay fever with prevalence varying among different age groups in various regions of the world. Clin Exp Allergy 1989; 19: 19— 25. The use of a cobalt blue light with the application of topical fluorescein dye can reveal diffuse areas of punctate corneal epithelial defects. The type of reaction should be noted e. A small percentage of patients with atopic dermatitis also develop keratoconus, a conical protrusion of the cornea caused by thinning of the stroma. The natural history of tree nut allergy.
Thus by proper recognition of risk factors in affected children, one may be able to change the outcome of asthma in adulthood. The authors of the report point to the complexity of the mechanisms involved in chronic activation of mast cells in the bronchial mucosa of asthmatics and remind us of the need for potent and specific drugs capable of inhibiting the release of mast cell mediators in asthmatic airways. Uveitis, scleritis, or other systemic autoimmune disorders may also be a cause of red eye. The cornea should be perfectly smooth and transparent. Histamine receptors have been found on the conjunctiva, cornea, and ophthalmic arteries, and two separate histamine receptors, H1 and H2, have been identified in the conjunctiva.
Disposable contact lenses have been proposed as an alternative treatment. The presence of other allergic diseases, particularly allergic conjunctivitis or atopic dermatitis, would also be strong support for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Salsola pestifer Kochia scoparia Iva xanthifolia Plantago lanceolata Amaranthus spp. Abstract Asthma is a common chronic illness characterized by episodes of reversible airflow obstruction. Many theories abound about the increasing prevalence of allergies in the United States, such as increased industrialization, pollution, urbanization, and the hygiene theory. Weeds Ragweed Sage Russian thistle Scales Ambrosia spp. Diseases resulting from this type of reaction are immunologic and known as hypersensitivity diseases.
Early Release of Selected Estimates Based on Data from January—March 2006 National Health Interview Survey. This usually occurs during late February through April but may start as early as December in regions with cedar trees. The plasma cells survive for days to weeks to produce antibodies and die thereafter, whereas memory cells survive for many years. Similarly, a sedentary adult tolerates more obstruction than an athlete. Therefore, the family history is usually limited to first-degree relatives. In the last several years, new methods of detection and morphologic identification of pollen sources have been studied. Clinical Immunology Principles and Practice.
The tree season is generally brief and rather distinct because pollination occurs before, during, or shortly after leaves develop in deciduous trees. Grass pollen is the second most common cause of allergic rhinitis and seasonal asthma in the United States, following ragweed. The incidence and prevalence of the specific disease, however, changes as the allergic individual approaches late adulthood. Therefore, only the major differences are emphasized in this chapter. A good allergy history involves detective work. The most common type of immunoglobulin, IgG, has subclasses of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, each with unique biological properties.