A common theme that permeates all four topics is the sex-segregated nature of work. The case of Ellison v. Furthering the analysis of Gutek, Morasch, and Cohen 1983 , factor analytic, cluster analytic, and multidimensional scaling techniques were supplied to a set of 19 questions which were used to evaluate some ambiguous vignettes that could have been considered instances of sexual harassment. Feel free to call us at if you need immediate assistance. Therefore, although the use of social networks in job search may enhance women's actual knowledge of prevailing wages, I hypothesize that institutional characteristics that employers could assume to constrain women's networks and concomitant access to salary information will directly affect salary offers, as well as moderating the influence of network ties on pay. Scholars interested in deploying postcolonial feminist perspectives will also benefit by understanding how key analytic tools and research methods from these lenses can be used for conducting fieldwork in other contexts. The data indicate 7 types of acts or stages of discussion, and suggest identifiable roles taken by members of the group.
These findings have implications for benefits, skills development, and income security policies. Contracting offers less job security and less employer-provided training than regular employment. If you are the talent, and wish to request removal from this catalog or report an issue with your profile, please. This is important for litigation because ultimately our understanding of the predictors, correlates, and consequences of sexual harassment are based on our how we measure sexual harassment. The training methods, settings, and procedures available vary greatly among the offices. This paper, therefore, explores the conditions under which attitudes can predict computer use, investigating both workers' volitional control and their knowledge of the technology.
After reviewing the evidence, we evaluate the use of a reasonable woman standard, concluding that this standard is not helpful. While this is no doubt a challenging undertaking precisely because the boundary of professional education is so porous, one may envision starting with a program's advisory board, or board of overseers who, after all, bring a commitment to the quality of engineering education at a particular institution. Implications of these results for gender differences in outcome evaluations are discussed. In addition, customers who receive service face-to-face are less likely to give blame or credit to the company than those who receive service over the telephone or Internet. Being 'sexy' and sex in general were ubiquitous in reports from multiple sub-sectors. There were no effects for androgyny level.
Yet, regular complica- tions and difficulties in one domain spill- over in to another and create frustrations and conflicts between these two domains. This article provides the reader with both a conceptual and a practical approach to understanding the interaction between the three entities in service deliveries: customer, provider, and organization. Our extensive relationships and reputation in the industry allow us to book virtually any speaker or celebrity in the world. Using an innovative, yet simple, measure to capture network diversity, we test network explanations of why women are in the paid labor force, controlling for background, structural, and family composition variables. She is the editor of the Academy of Management Journal. In general, satisfaction levels in all areas—job, life, government agencies—are higher than anticipated by researchers and the lay public, do not yield much variation among social classes, job categories, or agency experiences, and tend to be more favorable when own experience is assessed rather than when others' experiences are assessed. The authors analyze why the workforce has become increasingly male-dominated over time by looking at how pre-employment conditions provide different experiences and opportunities for women and men.
The authors propose and test a novel theory of how decisions not to hire reproduce gender segregation through what they term proportional prejudice. In this paper we review research on the evaluation of the qualifications and performance of men and women, and research on attributions about the causes of performance. Sex-role and work-role are practically identical. Analyses are based on responses of 168 white-collar employees in 77 computer-using work groups. Therefore, it should not make a difference whether persons are asked to evaluate the job while they are holding it or after they have moved on to another job.
Sex linkage of job did affect same-sex preferences; whereas subjects in sex-appropriate and sex-neutral jobs showed a significant preference for seeing the pay of same-sex others first, subjects in sex-inappropriate jobs did not. The present review covers four topics: demographic changes in the status of women at work, placement in the workplace, work and family interdependence, and problems in the workplace. This obligation leads to a dilemma, which happens to the women victims in Couchsurfing as well. The sex composition effect represented about 65% of the reduction in segregation during the period 1972—1983 while it accounted for only about 25% during the period 1993—2002. Implementation of the more feasible but less far-reaching change strategies may help explain the current status of women in management.
Proposed solutions depend on one's explanation for the problem. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the substitutability of retrospective pretest ratings for actual pretest ratings in indexing change in patient satisfaction with health status. Selective areas of research are reviewed under four kinds of topics: 1 topics that have disappeared over the past 20 years, 2 important topics that were not studied or could not be studied 20 years ago but are now women as leaders , 3 previously neglected topics stereotyping , and 4 rapidly emerging topics mentoring, effects of preferential selection, sexual harassment. Gender stratification in the information technology industry revisited; Appendix: Detailed statistical inference tables; References; Index. Though efforts have been made to create more equitable outcomes by gender and race Koput and Gutek 2010 , many attempts do not produce their intended re- sults Kalev, Dobbin, and Kelly 2006. In addition, same-sex comparisons were stronger predictors of career-entry pay expectations than opposite-sex comparisons.
In addition, local context impacted whether and how actors engaged in practices that produced marginalization and resistance simultaneously. The following topics are reviewed: a short history of sexual harassment; definitions and measurement, prevalence, theories, and models of sexual harassment; characteristics of initiators and recipients and organizational correlates; consequences of harassment; and research on perceptions and judgments about harassment. Perceived organizational discrimination is an issue as it has both direct and indirect costs to employees and to organizations. In contrast, the comparison choices of aschematic Ss were consistent with the related-attributes hypothesis. As predicted, reference group comparisons accounted for a larger proportion of unique variance in students' pay expectations than either career path factors or perceived job inputs. Both of these truisms, based on research findings, have influenced social and organizational policies and the law.
Asaresult, Landy misrepresents the evidence for stereotype-based workplace discrimination. In two decades of research on sexual harassment, one finding that appears repeatedly is that gender of the rater influences judgments about sexual harassment such that women are more likely than men to label behavior as sexual harassment. Survey research data show disagreement about the interpretation of interactions between the sexes at work. The gender and sample differences in the sexual harassment ratings, however, are explained by a model which incorporates hostile sexism, perceptions of the complainant's credibility, and raters' own ability to put themselves in the complainant's position self-referencing. Despite the availability of the combined-sex wage, subjects preferred to maximize similarity in their wage comparisons, with the majority choosing to see the pay of a same-sex and same-job group first.
Bookmark Author Subjects ; ; Summary This illuminating monograph introduces a status-equilibrating, social capital explanation for the persistent gender stratification in the field of information technology. Most requirements that are considered functional to fulfill tasks in female-dominated occupations are perceived as stereotypically feminine. Sociometry, 1973, 36, 600—607 two-process analysis of ability comparison and Goethals and Darley's Goethals, G. Although customers respond particularly well to service relationships, based on our results for auto mechanics, it appears possible for firms to design pseudorelationships that also are relatively high in trust. In short, their discontent tended to focus on their new jobs but not on life in general or involvement and identification with their profession.