This remained the case in certain German states, particularly those retaining the Catholic faith and those to the west and south west, which were strongly influenced by the Swiss reformers. With his table of all the notes and solmisation syllables he established a format which survived in German tutors well into the succeeding century Plate 1. What seems particularly new in Printz's approach is the responsibility he places on the pupil himself to guarantee his own progress. Es mochte denn in dem Basso, oder in den Discanten mit seinen fiiglichen Instrumenten, und mit sonderlicher fuglicher Disposition geschehen. This tradition, which continued well into the nineteenth century, often led to an ambivalent attitude towards music on account of its association with beggary. Thus the bass becomes almost a metaphor for the Godly foundation of music, something which was later emphasised in the thoroughbass methods of Werckmeister, Niedt a n d j.
Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music 7. The 'Doctrina' section is a careful analysis of the various figures of diminution, but there is little indication of how these are to be applied. His clearest testimony on vocal scoring - 112 Music education and the art of performance which complements the evidence from the earlier writings - comes with his advice on communal breathing: When several sing one part, as tends to happen in full-voiced motets or with capella parts, they should all begin, continue and finish together, but not take breath together. He also shows that cantors did not necessarily always use a specific text book for music instruction: It was found advisable to print the present music booklet anew, accordingly I have on my part gladly let this happen in consideration of the fact that in this fashion singing is learned far more quickly and with greater enjoyment; since, as in their other lessons, the boys become accustomed to a particular book in music too, out of which they are instructed and taught in an orderly and thorough manner, so that they can further research at home, and thus industriously practise for themselves, those things which are explained and shown to them in schools. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Bidermann 1749 see chapter 6, p.
The latter rule is particularly interesting: Marpurg takes a convention which stretches back to sixteenth-century tutors, and which although modified by some seventeenth-century writers advocating a closer attention to the affective content of the text could still be applied in the mid eighteenth century when the necessary dynamic changes were more likely to be included in the notation. The very fact that there are comments concerning performance practice and interpretation in certain primers and at certain junctures suggests the development of a conscious regard for performance and its style, something which cannot always be assumed in the history of performance. He is also active as a solo organist and harpsichordist, with eleven recordings on organ, harpsichord and clavichord released by Harmonia Mundi and two more on Linn. As primary material I have examined a vast range o f - mainly published - treatises from the period c. Profe 1641 designs everything with the pupil's imagination and ability in mind: the scale is pictured as a ladder p. Schneegass 1591 and Quitschreiber 1598 both stress that points of imitation need to be clearly sung in fugal writing Bartels 1989, p. Few of these basic primers give any clue on what would today be regarded as musical interpretation, nor is there much reference to the affective nature of music.
As Maipurg states, some of the most difficult intervals are found in the melodic lines of galant pieces, rather than those in a more traditional contrapuntal style; this might account for the particular attention given to learning and practising intervals in the performance tutors of this period Marpurg 1763, p. Although he states that music and arithmetic are foremost among the seven liberal arts, his efforts to show that the two are closely related are contrived in the extreme: the five species of arithmetic counting, adding, subtracting, multiplication and division correspond to the five principles of singing the traditional sixteenth-century headings of claves, voces, cantus, mutatio, Jigurae. That many choirs were still unfamiliar with differentiated dynamics is suggested by a direction Tobias Michael added to the last piece in his Musicalische Seelenlust part I 1634 : whoever has no taste for the indicated piano-forte contrasts may simply omit them. Thus the ornamental figures constituting the diminution of cantor passagiato are purely musical elaborations. Biittner notes in the introduction to his school music primer of 1625 that many oppose the art of music and that Luther's judgement is here appropriate: 'those contemptuous of the wonderful art of music apparently hear only the grunting of the sow and the cry of the ass'. Only a few years later, he wrote the most influential German essay on 'modern' Italian practices, in the third part of Syntagma musicum 1619.
Mezza di voce Die Uebung in dem verstarcken und wieder abnehmenden Aushalten langer Noten, verbreitet ihren Nutzen in das ganze Singen iiberhaupt. Later theorists adopt the threefold division e. Bernhard, in contradistinction to Burmeister or Kircher, does not analyse motets for their musical-verbal rhetoric. Ornamentation and the relation between performer and composer -- 6. Seldom though is a history created out of performance as a system of thought.
But with this came a striking change in music's role in education: the new idiom demanded a more musically specialised cantor, one who might be expected to compose with not a little sense of the 'new' and perhaps even with some notion of the 'original'. Thus the place in education traditionally assigned to musica theorica could at least partly be filled by musica practica, that art which enabled the young pupils to acquire the basic musical competence demanded by the new liturgies especially the chorales. This moderation in style accords well with the traditional German rules summarised in Calvisius 1602, so Burmeister probably found the ancient rules of rhetoric a useful way of justifying the status quo. Secondly, the importance of music within Lutheran culture cannot be overestimated; while Catholic church music of the Baroque is hardly to be ignored, it was to some degree secondary to the newer, secular genres of opera, sonata and concerto. In considering the role of practical music in education this book attempts to define the art of performance in Germany during the Baroque period. He sensed the affective significance of music in actual sound, believing it to be the supreme gift of God, standing second only to theology itself.
Solmisation cannot be learned by reading a book: either the singing teacher must demonstrate and the pupil imitate the difference between mi and fa or as Quitschreiber and Hizler also advise the pupil can learn it with a tuned instrument such as a clavichord, violin or lute. John Butt's first recordings were appearing in the early 1990's. Thus the issue of performance practice and style was necessarily a self-conscious activity: di voce; the practice of strengthening and then weakening sustained longer notes can be applied to every kind of singing. Despite his respect for music and claims that he was not starting a Pietistic inquisition p. Friccius's organ dedication of 1631 shows that musically minded theologians were not slow to link the newly emerging triadic system with the concept of the Trinity.
Furthermore, his Quaestiones vulgatiores 1543 deals at length with The establishment of Lutheran musical practice 9 common questions concerning the information imparted in his simpler treatises. The theologians' belief in the affective and moral power of music is made particularly explicit in the fears expressed by the Pietists see p. Nevertheless Herbst was still required to train the eight best boys from the school. Burmeister cites the example of the deaf-mute who must express all his feelings through his gestures. Agricola confirms Mattheson's view that the Germans have not perfected the art of singing to the extent of the Italians Agricola 1757, p.