Whereas in the past long distances meant that most people only stayed in their second homes during vacations, improved transportation has made it easier for people to move back and forth between the city and their country residence. Norway — In 1999, a new law halted the construction of retail centres larger than 3 000 m2 for a five-year period. However, non-English speaking immigrants face particular challenges and do less well. Territorial planning Planning is usually the main instrument by which sectoral policies are co-ordinated and given a spatial articulation. The resulting framework law the Decentralization Package Law , which supports the preparation and development of related laws to promote decentralisation, was enacted in 1999, and enforced in the following year. The concept of the rural hub depends on good access to services, rather than actual distances. At the same time, the average number of employees in these incubators is very low, suggesting that these are production sites, but that they are not geared to providing business services to companies located there.
Given that regional development strengths and weaknesses vary, as do local preferences for the quantity and quality of public services, regions themselves are, in principle, best placed to identify and respond to development opportunities and to provide an appropriate basket of public goods to local citizens. Selective university mergers to create economies of scale and other changes in academic incentive and evaluation systems are also under way. In terms of impact, the policy was successful in some respects. Improving productivity will depend not only on making regulatory, educational, labour-market, and financial frameworks more conductive to innovation, but also on the ability of local firms, supported by research and other institutions, to increase their level of innovation and technological development. . A more detailed evaluation of the efficiency or effectiveness of policy has been constrained in the past by the lack of specific and measurable objectives, targets and indicators in the main planning instruments. .
A team of Science and Technology Co-ordinators and experts such as patent lawyers animate the system by bringing the different actors into contact with each other through seminars, forums, etc. The report also provides detailed time series data of up to 10 years for a number of key indicators. Reorganisation of national government ministries, involving the creation of a Cabinet Office and the consolidation of some ministries and agencies. Partly as a result of those reforms, the Japanese economy appears to be moving forward. Based on the 1972 Industrial Relocation Promotion Law, financial incentives encouraged factories in restricted areas to relocate or establish new factories in designated areas. Improving urban landscapes is considered to be a key element in a broad strategy to reinvigorate urban land markets, increase investment and bring residents back into central areas. Neanmoins, cette complexite ne conduit pas a la determination d'un contrat optimal qui serait approprie a tous les contextes de coordination.
Porter also notes that many policies have focused on common business environment weaknesses in rural areas often associated with low population density while ignoring specificities of particular areas. For this to occur liberalisation and fundamental reforms of labour market and immigration policies — and potentially social security systems — have to be pursued Kawai, 2004. Many local governments in rural areas are considered to be below the critical size to provide public goods efficiently. . .
The process of formulating the past plans required negotiation. This shift needs to be supported and encouraged. As Japan moves from a standardised top-down regional planning approach to one that encourages innovation, decentralisation, and customisation, it will be important to substantially upgrade investments in benchmarking and learning. For example, some regions are likely to be able to capitalise on the growth of the Chinese market. Additionally, it would be important to go beyond regulatory relief, to consider specific accompanying incentives as well as linkages with other regional policies necessary to increase leveraging effects. As seen in Figure 1. Its primary tools were top down land use planning, infrastructure investment and industrial relocation.
This has not happened in Japan or elsewhere. Again, the characteristics and needs of such businesses differ from those of the other two categories, for example, requiring entrepreneurial and service innovation and having lower entry barriers. . . Source: DeWit and Yamazaki 2004 , original data from Tokyo Metropolitan Government. The Council usually has a planning section and special committees for examining individual issues and responds to requests from the Minster for Land, Infrastructure and Transport for surveys of new issues.
Outline of the policy on Landscape and Greenery. . As for spending, earmarked grants — often shaped by a rigid allocation process — have been used extensively to guide local public spending. . About one-third of the approved zones are related to education especially changes to the English language curricula or childcare.
This is a central aspect of current interest in rural hubs, particularly in the United States but also in European countries. Overall, Japanese people take more holidays than in the past — though on average they still take only half of their allocated paid leave — and the five-day work week is now more common 57% of workers work a five-day week on a permanent basis, and 95% frequently. Although rural journeys are longer, the number of trips and the commuting time are almost the same. Strong regional centres provide the principal means by which to offer the kind of social and economic infrastructures that can maintain population and retain and attract investment. The range of regulations that restrict the ability of research institutions and their staff to work with the private sector considerably reduce incentives for co-operation, thereby reducing the development of the synergies that are expected to accrue from close links between the research community and industry. From a territorial policy perspective, spatial plans at different scales are the main expression of the concept of balanced development.
Although the recent movement to decentralise seems to have been motivated primarily by economic and fiscal concerns, it was also a response to increasing requests from citizens for a more diverse supply of public goods and attests to increasing recognition on the part of the central government of the enhanced capacity of local government. . In several locations in Sweden, universities have been active in forming new academic-business linkages, establishing regional technology partnerships, and offering new kinds of entrepreneurial training Cooke, 2004. As a first step, for a period of four to six weeks several times every year the Office for the Promotion of Special Zones located in the Cabinet Office solicits regulatory proposals from all interested parties: local governments, private firms, citizens and foreign companies. This may involve adding functions such as incubation, business technology outreach, and community development assistance which would be carried out by dedicated professionals within the university system rather than by university professors.