Formulated in the late 1950s Laings approach to the care and under-standing of individuals suffering from mental illness was critical of theprevailing medical model. Moreover, for those who would rather read a synopsis of the fields thatgenerally support and create the transpersonal view and its inclusionin psychological thinking, a prcis of all the fields discussed, withoutrecourse to in-depth explanations, is provided at the end of the chapter. Seligman 2006 , who initiated the concept of learned helplessness,and its relationship to attribution theory Both Seligmans and Beckstheories focused originally on depression. This of course would also include psychological well-being,the province of Western psychology. However, I think it is important to recognize that, as Alfred Korzybski 18791950 reminds us, the map is not the territory and, although allthe information I have gathered can be considered to help build a pictureof transpersonal psychology, I could only give, in one single book, briefdescriptions of the many maps. The notion that transpersonal psychology has not yet fully gainedacademic respectability may be a useful idea when thinking of its placein the wider field of psychology. Transpersonal psychology: religion with a psychologicalspin? You can find the full-text , along with other pieces on transpersonal psychology written by Stanislav Grof.
He termsit the researchers voice, and is keen to point out that it needs to berecognized in all areas of a research project. Exploring neurological functioning, Zohar, a physicist, has focusedmuch of her research upon understanding consciousness from theperspective afforded by Quantum Physics. As well as examining contemporary integrative approaches, the authors show how to develop an individual approach to integrating theories and methods from a range of psychotherapies. This approach to therapy gives precedence towhich not why phenomena occur; this focus leaves scant time nopun intended for philosophical deliberation nor transpersonal func-tioning unless it has a direct and observable bearing on a consideredand desired result. Both were formulating their ideas of the transpersonal as central tenetsof their theories in the second decade of the twentieth century. I will explore further whenlooking at quantum mechanics and transpersonal theory later in thischapter.
Moreover, this popularizing of what werethen alternative traditions also brought a flowering in the practising ofnumerous spiritual techniques such as meditation, tai chi and yoga. However, as the work progressed and moreand more complexity emerged, I then chose a more splateral ratherthan lateral stance, where the competing and complimentary theorieswere discussed in a less-rigid order. He regards this distinction as being useful whentrying to understand the differences between the various transpersonaltheories on offer, The immanent-horizontal-descending position arguesthat transformation is to be sought through greater connection to theworld of nature, to other people, the body, the feminine, or the dynamicground of the unconscious Daniels, 2005, p. The recognition of transpersonal psychologyby the medical model The idea that a transpersonal view of anything is able to offer a validviewpoint is a contentious issue in the present academic climate, and isexplored through a discussion of the philosophy of science in the nextchapter. The inclusive approach that transpersonal psychology tends to adoptmay also be emerging within the psychoanalytical movement itself. The idea behind this tight-ening upon the psychological professionals is the establishment andpolicing of protocols that ensure clinical accountability. In addition to his training in Psychosynthesis he has extensive experience and training in other models spanning from traditional analytic thinking and practice to more contemporary relational models.
They are: Beck 1979 , who placed emphasis upon a cognitive triad thoughtsabout the Self, the Future and the World , and the errors of logic. Casement achieves in this short book what Jung may have hoped to do when he reported a dream following a meeting with a publisher who was encouraging him to write a popular text of his ideas for the non-specialist. He then concludes that the main factors thatdistinguish transpersonal clinicians from others is that, The practi-tioners of transpersonal psychology tend to report having had spiritualexperiences, follow some spiritual practice, and believe that such exper-iences are important. The author has asserted his right to be identifiedas the author of this work in accordance with the Copyright,Designs and Patents Act 1988. A lesser known figurethe Canadian Richard Maurice Bucke 18371902 known as MauriceBucke , who spent a great deal of his life researching and writing a bookentitled Cosmic Consciousness 1901, 1992 , which was published theyear before his death, in 1901, and is still in print today.
Therefore, I begin with a brief exploration of the history of the termtranspersonal as well as its use in psychology. It is not an area ofstudy, like vision, reasoning, or social behavior. Seeing this as a good example of possible misinterpretation, I turnedto Walshs and Vaughans 1993 comparison, for it clearly points outareas of overlap as well as differences between the two fields. We need to see the complexity of things, the wholeness of things, which means the incompleteness and simplicity of things at the same time. It is a way of thinkingabout psychology that can be applied to any topic within it. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
The Daseinanalytic clinician is not interested in what psychoanalyt-ical therapists would regard as intra-psychic conflict; they favour theview that internal conflict points instead towards some form of closed-ness to the world. For me the obvious starting point was my Dictionary of Psychology 1995. Although Freuds thinking has undoubtedly made an immense contri-bution to psychology as it is understood today, it has been those whobuild upon his thinking and look towards object-relations theory, whoare more able to include a transpersonal element in their work. Finally transper-sonal psychology, for many, is not a valid area of research, simplybecause its theories suggest functioning beyond ego boundaries, withits praxis as well as its theories seen to exhibit phenomena that donot meet the test re test criteria of the prevailing scientific hegemony. In some ways it could be seen as a form of dumbing down existentialistphilosophy, yet many central themes are similar, if not the same: forexample, meaning and meaninglessness, purpose, death, freedom andthe unknown. I wonder whether it's lingering purple confusing the mix.
He saw this fragmentation developing as a response to an early familymatrix that did not foster the experience of developing the experienceof self as a unique being who has a relationship with the world. ThisI see as supporting Wilbers definition of transpersonal psychology thatI quoted earlier, which acknowledges the inclusion of a wide knowledgebase drawn from all psychotherapeutic traditions. This work, however, is written in an accessible style that appeals to the general reader as well as experienced clinician. He would most certainly not have made any ofthe distinctions between a religious orientation and the inclusion ofspirituality that are discussed in the present milieu. Whereas feudal lords and kings may have once dominated the landscape, now it is advertising and mass production-the quicker, the slicker, the better.
This is a common method utilized by most philosophicalenquirers who also often look towards the ideas of other philosophicalschools in order to further a philosophical debate that offers explana-tions for the human condition. By providing case studies from his own practice that cover the spectrum of traditional psychological categories, he demonstrates the vast possibilities and some of the pitfalls inherent in joining psychotherapy and spirituality and also gives the reader a glimpse into the psychiatrist's mental processes as he considers patients' dilemmas and seeks to help them find solutions. On the other hand, philosophical enquiry in itself issometimes regarded as therapeutic for both writer and reader. It is from this place of unity that the embryonic egoconsciousness emerges into a world that contains experiences of oppos-ites and polarity. Thisaids unendurable social pressures that are experienced as ontologicalinsecurity.
Assagioli and Jung are two figures who spring immediately to mind. Schacter-Shalomi 1996 , a rabbi and lecturer in Jewish mysticism, andParfit 2006 , a psychosynthesis psychotherapist, both offer a discussionof the Kabala. Skinner as an example of a theorist fromthe behavioural school because he is perhaps the best-known thinkerwhose work is regarded as influential in the rise of popularity and regardof behavioural psychology. If participants or the researcher suspects that them-atic analysis would alter the unique voice s of those in the study,interviews or narratives can be presented act to parallel the analysis. It presents a broad yet detailed overview of transpersonal theory and its place in clinical practice.
Althoughsome of the postulates I describe would be more in line with my ownviews and some I have needed to research in more depth, I have triedto give all an equal say and have made explicit where I stand, as I feltit important not to discount some of the ideas I put forward. Within this same era it was not just those from the burgeoning new science of medico-psychology who spoke of the transpersonal. He has co-edited The plural self. Benjamin Barber's notion of Jihad vs. Existential psychology The existential school could be split into two rough categories: Daseinanalytic psychotherapy Binswanger, 1963; Boss, 1963;Condrau, 1998 and Existential psychotherapy Bugental, 1980; Laing, 1959, 1969; May,1969; Spinelli, 1997; Van Deurzen-Smith, 1997; Yalom, 1980. To bring this section to a close I distill the foregoing into a couple ofsentences. Sharrock serves to enliven the thinking of any psychologist, counsellor or psychotherapist regardless of their clinical orientation.